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Para melhor percebermos o fenómeno da globalização, com o qual somos constantemente bombardeados quando a classe dominante quer justificar porque é que o trabalho é sempre penalizado em favor do capital, convém ir lendo o que a investigação nos ensina sobre a complexidade dos mecanismos de governança que actuam na arena global, constrangendo os governos nacionais, ao mesmo tempo que são por eles fabricados e postos em prática.

[…]contemporary global governance is characterized by a high degree of diversity and complexity. Governance arrangements can take public, private, or hybrid forms. They can involve substantial delegation of functions or reflect the desire not to create and empower independent bodies. They can involve many of the stakeholders in the decision making process or convey the overwhelming power of a few. Furthermore, the interplay among distinct governance arrangements is also remarkably diverse, as the modalities of interaction range widely, from symbiosis to rivalry.

The heterogeneous and at times contradictory character of global governance presents a challenge to any attempt to understand its operation and evolution in theoretical terms.

Many scholars of global governance are concerned with the possibilities and conditions of its improvement. Some focus on the capacity of governance arrangements to solve the problems that led to their creation, and ask which institutional designs are more conducive to effectiveness (Miles et al. 2001). Others stress the need to strengthen the mechanisms for participation and accountability in global policy making, and explore ways to increase the ‘congruence’ between the input and the output sides of global governance, i.e. those who are entitled to participate in decision making and those who are affected by the decisions taken (Held 1995, Archibugi et al. 1998). Grasping the multidimensional and intertwined nature of existing arrangements, and in particular the elusive role of private authority, is an important step towards the conception and construction of institutions capable of simultaneously attaining these crucial goals: improving the performance of global governance and increasing its public accountability.